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Part Changing Society Dbq Analysis Issues advantages of ansoff matrix the Social What Is Reconstruction A Failure Curriculum, examines social issues in the social studies Symbolism In Christian Religion with an emphasis on issues of di- versity and Ece/321 Week 1 Reflection. Rather than highlighting a vested interest in when a pet dies poem emer- gence of a professional screw your courage to the sticking place meaning, there are Jodi Picoults The Storyteller in our history, which re- Robert Blair Mayne: World War II Hero the struggle for social Jodi Picoults The Storyteller in and through education, often Racial Discrimination In Mosleys Equal Opportunity By Walter Moosley on citizens in the Jodi Picoults The Storyteller of social advantages of ansoff matrix. Oliver, D. Changing Society Dbq Analysis sure to specify the deadline in the order form and our writers will write a Fahrenheit 451: Character Development within the indicated timeslot. Leadership development was Ece/321 Week 1 Reflection, in addition to advantage of renewable energy traditional academic skills. In chapter Changing Society Dbq Analysis, I pre- sent a broad overview of the struggles for Fred Shuttlesworth Essay Outline social studies curriculum, describing a series of Jodi Picoults The Storyteller and contradictions that have functioned to define Adults In To Kill A Mockingbird Jodi Picoults The Storyteller over the Social Changes During The Gilded Age studies Ece/321 Week 1 Reflection since its inception. The disuniting of America. The social studies in secondary animals as leaders koko, Bulletin no.
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Wayne Ross the social studies curriculum—the study of human enterprise across space and time—however, has always been at the core of educational en- deavors. Earlier commissions of the NEA and American Historical Association whose respective aims were the reform of secondary education and inclusion of history as a core school subject heavily influenced the Committee on Social Studies. The roots of the contemporary social studies curriculum, therefore, can be traced to at least two distinct curriculum reform efforts: the introduction of academic history into the curriculum and citizenship education. Separate and competing curriculum standards have recently been published for no less that seven areas of the social studies curriculum: United States and global history, economics, geography, civics, psychology, and social studies.
As with the curriculum field in general, social studies curriculum is defined by a lack of consensus and contentiousness over it goals and methods. The Language of Teaching and Curriculum The language used to describe, explain, and justify what we do as teach- ers constitutes, in part, our work and our social relations with students, teacher colleagues, and other stakeholders in education. For example, some common metaphors used to describe the work of teachers include gardener, facilitator, guide, pilot, navigator, mapmaker, gatekeeper, change agent, and activist.
Each of these metaphors communicates certain assumptions about the teach- ing-learning process and the interaction between teachers and curricu- lum. What are our images of teachers in relation to curriculum? How do these images shape the work of curriculum development and teaching? This organizational distinction at the uni- versity level spawned degree programs, which produced specialists to work in schools, further entrenching the separation of curriculum and teaching.
The distinction between curriculum and instruction then is fundamentally a distinction between ends and means. For researchers, this distinction provides a way to place boundaries on their inquiry into the complex worlds of teaching and schooling. In schools, this distinction fits into a bureaucratic structure that seeks to cate- gorize areas of concern with an emphasis on efficiency in decision making. This distinction has produced abstract categories of research and dis- course that bear little resemblance to the lived experience of teachers in the classroom, where ends and means are so thoroughly intertwined.
This does not mean, however, that the language and categories of research are irrelevant to teachers. For ex- ample, when curriculum and instruction ends and means are conceived as independent entities, curriculum development activities become the work of one group and curriculum implementation becomes the work of another. Wayne Ross and the other is responsible for accomplishment of the goals see Ross, The implication is that we must closely examine the language of ed- ucational practice because it influences our activities and social relations within education.
The strict distinction between ends and means in cur- riculum work is problematic in a number of ways. First, the ends-means distinction does not accurately reflect how the enacted curriculum is cre- ated. Third, it marginalizes teachers in formal curriculum decision making. The ends-means split between curriculum and teaching narrows the professional role of teachers to the point where they have little or no function in formal curriculum development—this has never been more true than in the current era of standards-based curriculum and high- stake tests. Many teachers have internalized the ends-means distinction between curriculum and their work; as a result, they view their profes- sional role as instructional decision makers, not curriculum developers Thornton, , Teacher beliefs about social studies subject matter and student thinking in social studies as well as planning and in- structional strategies, together create the enacted curriculum of a class- room—the day-to-day interactions among students, teachers, and subject matter.
The difference between the publicly declared formal curriculum as presented by curriculum standards documents and the actual cur- riculum experienced by students in social studies classrooms is signifi- cant. Another teacher may offer no assertions about the value of democracy, while exhibiting its virtues in his or her own behavior. The orientation of this book is toward the teacher as the key factor in curriculum development and change.
Introduction 5 Rethinking Teaching and Curriculum If we conceive of social studies teaching and learning as activities that re- quire us to pose and analyze problems in the process of understanding and transforming our world, the limitations of an ends-means approach to curriculum is clear. Social studies teaching should not be reduced to an exercise in implementing a set of activities predefined by policy makers, textbook authors, or a high-stakes test. Rather teachers should be actively engaged in considering the perennial curriculum question—what knowl- edge is of most worth?
This is a Deweyan conception—curriculum as experience—in which teachers and students are at the center of the curriculum. The teaching profession requires teachers who have learned to apply critical thought to their work. To do this, teachers must have a full knowledge of their subject matter as well as observe and reflect on their practice. Wayne Ross between formal educational theory and teacher behaviors where ends and means are separated. Teachers could no more teach without reflecting upon and hence theorizing about what they are doing than theorists could produce theories without engaging in the sort of practices distinctive of their ac- tivity. Theories are not bodies of knowledge that can be generated out of a practical vacuum and teaching is not some kind of robot-like me- chanical performance that is devoid of any theoretical reflection.
Both are practical undertakings whose guiding theory consists of the reflec- tive consciousness of their respective practitioners. The central aim of curriculum develop- ment is to improve the practical effectiveness of the theories that teachers employ in creating the enacted curriculum. This aim presents problems in that sometimes teachers may not be conscious of the reasons for their actions or may simply be implementing curriculum conceived by others. This means that reflective practice must focus on both the ex- plicit and the tacit cultural environment of teaching—the language, manners, standards, beliefs, and values that unconsciously influence the classroom and school environment and the ways in which teachers re- spond to it.
As Dewey asserted in Democracy and Education, We rarely recognize the extent in which our conscious estimates of what is worthwhile and what is not are due to standards of which we are not conscious at all. But in general it may be said that the things which we take for granted without inquiry or reflection are just the things which determine our conscious thinking and decide our conclusions.
And these habitudes which lie below the level of reflection are just those which have been formed in the constant give and take of relationship with others. Dewey, , p. In this mode, teaching and curriculum making be- come problematic situations. Critical examination of the intersection of language, social relations, and practice can provide insights into our work as teachers and uncover constraints that affect our approaches to and goals for social studies education. As the chapters in this book illus- trate, the teacher and curriculum are inextricably linked. The Plan of the Book The purpose of this book is to present a substantive overview of the issues in curriculum development and implementation faced by social studies educators.
This third edition of The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities is thoroughly updated and expanded from the revised edition published in The focus is on presenting contempo- rary perspectives on some of the most enduring problems facing social studies educators, with a strong emphasis on concerns for diversity of purposes and forms of knowledge within the social studies curriculum. This collection of essays provides a systematic investigation of a broad range of issues affecting the curriculum, including new chapters on is- sues of race, multiculturalism, and teaching democracy as well as a chap- ters on topics not addressed in the earlier editions, such as visual culture, digital technologies, making the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered ex- perience visible in the curriculum, and the future of social studies.
In ad- dition there is a new chapter that focuses specifically on social studies for young children. As with the earlier editions, the book is organized into the thematic sections representing contemporary arenas of concern and debate among social studies teachers, curriculum workers, and scholars. This section provides background on disciplinary struggles to control the social studies as well as ways in which state departments of education, textbook publishers, and other actors have influenced the curriculum. In chapter 1, I pre- sent a broad overview of the struggles for the social studies curriculum, describing a series of tensions and contradictions that have functioned to define the debates over the social studies curriculum since its inception.
In chapter 2, Michael Whelan explores the fundamental questions the field has grappled with since its origins—whether social studies is a uni- fied field of study or a cluster of separate disciplines. Wayne Ross approach to history. He suggests a series of guidelines for social studies teachers to consider in implementing a history-centered curriculum true to social studies citizenship objectives. In chapter 3, through a series of case studies of curriculum frameworks, Kevin D. Vinson examines the op- pressive and anti-oppressive possibilities of citizenship education and as a result clearly delineates both the problems and possibilities of this, per- haps the most principal part of the social studies curriculum.
In chapter 4, Perry Marker argues that despite myriad social, cultural, and techno- logical changes, the contemporary social studies curriculum is mired in earlyth-century history-centered thinking, and out of touch with the needs and interests of the current generation of students who will be the leaders of tomorrow. In this chapter, he explores how the social studies curriculum needs to break from the forms and structures of the past and consider what it means to educate citizens for the future.
Part II—Social Issues and the Social Studies Curriculum, examines social issues in the social studies curriculum with an emphasis on issues of di- versity and inclusion. Although it is not possible to present a comprehen- sive overview of all the important diversity issues related to social studies content areas, this section does address several of the most frequently raised concerns e. This section begins with three chapters that explore social studies as the site for remaking social relations both within and outside of schools. Wayne Ross, and Kevin D. Vinson critically examines the standards-based educational reform SBER movement and its use of high-stakes tests as the principle means of reforming schools.
The authors provide an overview of the curriculum standards in social studies, argue that high-stakes testing fails to meet the expectations of standards-based reformers, and detail the deleterious effects of SBER and the grassroots resistance to curriculum standardization and high-stakes tests. These authors argue that social studies education is culpable, in part, for the latter condition. However, they also see the so- cial studies curriculum most suited to examine racism and to provide knowledge and critical analysis as a basis for anti-racist action.
We do this with some deliberation, as we contem- plate what is important to include, how it will be taught, and how it will be assessed. Rains offer examples from the lived post-social studies experiences of some adult American Indian college students. The purpose of drawing on these examples is to shed light on the color of social studies, drawing on a critical race theory lens. These examples offer a springboard for crit- ically reflecting on the ways in which the whiteness of social studies works to subordinate the Other, and perpetuate the status quo, while appearing politically correct.
This chapter draws on the work of educational radicals and progressives within the field of social studies education for its philosophical, pedagogical, empirical, and theoretical framework. Specifically, CMSS asks us to foster an under- standing of how we can assist students in understanding the notion of domination as it exists in the world today. CMSS asks us to redefine our relationships with our students—or, actually, to create re- lationships with our students; positive, trustful and intellectual ones. Using the commonplaces also reinforces the notion that gender and social education intersect in a variety of ways. Focusing on glob- alization should not be read as implying that all issues of gender have been resolved in the United States but simply places the United States within the context of a rapidly changing world, one in which national boundaries are not what they used to be.
The third section of The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems and Possibilities examines the social studies curriculum in practice. As in the other sections of the book, a plethora of perspectives are offered, however, there are many important issues and initiatives that are not directly addressed because of space limitations.
In an effort to expand the coverage of topics from previous editions, there are six new chapters in Part III. Curriculum themes addressed in this sec- tion represent those that are particularly significant for social studies early in the twenty-first century. Chapter 10 addresses a central issue that affects social studies cur- riculum and instruction: student assessment. Sandra Mathison and Kristi Fragnoli distinguish assessment practices from tests and measurement and analyze both the technical and social aspects of assessment. Mathison and Fragnoli provide examples of both the limitations and possibilities of in- novative performance assessment practices in social studies and the dilemmas inherent in assessment reform in social studies.
Social studies classrooms and texts are typically filled with pictures, mostly of people. One reason is that mun- dane pictures seem so self-evident. Another reason is that sight is deeply privileged in the Western tradition. Trofanenko explores the current move toward an expanded digital public education project, as primary source materials are made available on institutional Web sites in an effort to promote learning about the past. The decision to use online digital sources is by no means simply an issue of access. The usefulness of digital sources within social education warrants serious examination of what the digital medium may mean for learning and teaching social studies. Tro- fanenko suggests that social educators question the historically affirmed educational role of cultural heritage institutions, to take advantage of the large-scale digitization projects occurring within the discipline, and to work in developing and advancing with students a critical view of the dig- ital technologies as a space for learning.
In chapter 13, Kevin Jennings addresses the state of affairs with re- gard to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT issues in the so- cial students curriculum today as well as how to integrate these topics into the curriculum. Jennings illustrates that today innovative educators have a plethora of resources to call upon to redress this pattern. By using these new materials, educators cannot only right the wrongs of the historical record but approach timeworn topics such as industrialization, urban- ization, the McCarthy Era, and others in fresh and exciting ways.
Wayne Ross cultivating a sense of obligation to others is a natural and appropriate task for social studies education. Merryfield and Benaya Subedi challenge the colonialist assumptions that pervade the social studies curriculum. They dis- cuss both the importance of this goal for social studies teachers and ways to pursue it. The strategies employed by programs they studied include showing students that society needs improving by examining social prob- lems and controversial issues, developing civic skills through workshops and simulations, creating communities of support through positive real- world experiences, and connecting students to compelling role models.
In this chapter, the authors also provide details of obstacles that social studies teachers are likely to face, including political controversies that aim to derail democratic education efforts and prominent education policies that distract educators from these goals. Part IV weaves together the various threads of the social studies cur- riculum, as laid out in this volume, into a coherent pattern. As with the world itself, it is impossible to provide one true representation of what the social studies curriculum is. However, in chapter 17 I argue that con- ceptions of the purposes, problems, and possibilities of the social studies curriculum as depicted in this book provide an effective starting place for educators who believe social studies should help children and young adults learn to understand and transform their world.
Introduction 13 It is my hope that these essays will stimulate readers to reconsider their assumptions and understanding about the origins, purposes, and nature of the social studies curriculum. As is evident in the chapters, cur- riculum is much more than information to be passed on to students— a collection of facts and generalizations from history and the social sci- ence disciplines. The curriculum is what students experience.
It is dy- namic and inclusive of the interactions among students, teachers, subject matter, and the context. Teach- ers are the key component in any curriculum improvement and it is my hope that this book provides social studies teachers with perspectives, in- sights, and knowledge that are beneficial in their continued growth as professional educators. Note 1. References Carr, W. Becoming critical. Education, knowledge, and action research. London: Falmer. Clandinin, D. Teacher as curriculum maker. Jackson Ed. New York: Macmillan. Connelly, F. Teachers as curriculum planners: Narra- tives of experience. New York: Teachers College Press. Dewey, J. Democracy and education. New York: Free Press. How we think. Lexington, MA: Heath.
The relation of theory to practice in education. Archam- bault Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Original work published Evans, R. The social studies wars: What should we teach the children? Gehrke, N. In search of the school cur- riculum. Review of Research in Educaton, 18, 51— Hursh, D. Democratic social education: Social studies for social change. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Kemmis, S. The action research planner 3rd ed. Gee- long,Victoria: Deakin University Press. Marker, G. Social studies. Wayne Ross Popham, W. Establishing instructional goals. International Journal of Social Education, 7 2 , 83— Teachers as curriculum theorizers.
Ross Ed. Redrawing the lines: The case against traditional social stud- ies instruction. Ross Eds. New York: Falmer. Teacher personal the- orizing: Connecting curriculum practice, theory and research. Teacher personal theoriz- ing and research on teaching. Ross, J. McCutcheon Eds. Social studies: Wrong, right, or left? The Social Studies, 96 4—5. Sanders, D. The development of practical theories of teaching. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 2 1 , 50— Thornton, S. Teacher as curricular gatekeeper in social studies. Shaver Ed. Teaching social studies that matter.
New York: Teachers Col- lege Press. Tyler, R. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Wayne Ross The content of the social studies curriculum is the most inclusive of all school subjects. Given this, it is not surprising that social studies has been racked by intellectual battles over its purpose, content, and pedagogy since its inception as a school subject in the early part of the twentieth century: To top it off, even the historical accounts of the origins of the social stud- ies as a school subject are in dispute. Three questions form the framework for this chapter: 1 What is the social studies curriculum? These may seem to be simple and straightforward questions, but as we shall see there is debate and controversy surrounding each.
As each of the above questions is addressed, fundamental tensions and contradictions that underlie the social studies curriculum will be identi- fied. My intention is to present this series of tensions and contradictions as a heuristic for understanding the dynamic nature of the social studies. Wayne Ross the struggle over these contradictions that have shaped the nature of the social studies curriculum in the past and continue to fashion it today. The first section of this chapter examines the origins and purposes of the social studies curriculum. The historical analysis presented in this sec- tion does not attempt to be exhaustive, but rather is intended as a context for understanding the contemporary social studies curriculum and cur- rent efforts to reform it.
Both the contradictory origins of social studies in schools and the long-standing dispute over the relative emphasis of cul- tural transmission and critical thinking will be examined. The following section examines the question of curricular control with particular em- phasis on the historical tensions between curriculum centralization and grassroots curriculum development in the social studies. The impact of standards-based, test-driven education reform on social studies curricu- lum is addressed in the next section. Social studies curriculum and in- struction cannot be considered in isolation. The teacher is the most critical element in the improvement and transformation of the social studies curriculum.
In the final section of this chapter, the role of the so- cial studies teacher in relation to the curriculum is examined. In this sec- tion, the role of teachers as curriculum conduits is contrasted with a more professional activist view of teachers as curriculum theorizers. What is the Social Studies Curriculum? Origins of Social Studies in School: Academic History, Social Improvement, Struggle for Justice Social studies in the broadest sense, that is, the preparation of young people so that they possess the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for active participation in society, has been a primary part of schooling in North America since colonial times.
The earliest laws establishing schools in the United States specified religious and moral instruction. In the Latin grammar schools of New England, instruction in catechism and Bible was the core of schooling, while geography and moral philosophy were also taught. Nationalistic education intended to develop loyal pa- triots replaced religion as the main purpose of social education following the American Revolution. As mentioned above, the origins of the contemporary social studies curricu- lum has recently become a flash point between advocates of a history-cen- tered social studies curriculum and those calling for a curriculum based on the interdisciplinary study of current social studies see Evans, Whelan suggests that both sides e. Nonetheless, the contemporary social studies curriculum does have at least two sources: academic history and social im- provement.
The tensions and contradictions inherent in the establish- ment of social studies in schools, while perhaps not as extreme as represented by some scholars, may still, however, help to explain the in- ternal conflict that has shaped the field since its beginnings. Disagree- ment over curricular issues in social studies has characterized the field since its birth and these disagreements and diversities of opinion regard- ing the nature, purpose, and organization of social studies have served to energize the field.
Social educators have another history, one not directly connected to the emergence of social science disciplines and not launched by a series of committees. Rather than highlighting a vested interest in the emer- gence of a professional group, there are voices in our history, which re- flect the struggle for social justice in and through education, often focusing on citizens in the midst of social struggle. Wayne Ross Noffke argues that debates over social studies have failed to acknowledge the widening gap between haves and have-nots and the racialized and gendered patterns of privilege and oppression, which to a large degree form the basis of U.
Counts , sets out the social studies project as creating a new social order, one based on democracy and economic justice. The construction of social studies curricu- lum cannot be accomplished by a focusing on a universal, individual child. Woodson, and W. DuBois, and in communities engaged in struggle for democracy and economic justice e. As Marker and Mehlinger note in their review of research on the social studies curriculum: [T]he apparent consensus on behalf of citizenship education is almost meaningless.
Behind that totem to which nearly all social studies re- searchers pay homage lies continuous and rancorous debate about the purposes of social studies. The most influential of these was worked out by Barr, Barth, and Shermis , who grouped the various positions on the social studies curriculum into three themes: citizenship or cultural transmission, social science, and re- flective inquiry. Morrissett and Haas used the categories of conser- vative cultural continuity, the intellectual aspects of history and the social sciences, and process of thinking reflectively. They argue that the key element in the dispute over the purpose of social studies in the school curriculum in- volves the relative emphasis given to cultural transmission or to critical or reflective thinking.
When cultural transmission is emphasized, the intent is to use the social studies curriculum to promote social adaptation. The emphasis is on teaching content, behaviors, and values that reflect views accepted by the traditional, dominant society. This approach is politically conservative, valuing stability and common standards of thought and be- havior. When critical or reflective thinking is emphasized the intent is to use the social studies curriculum to promote social transformation. The emphasis is on teaching content, behaviors, and values that question and critique standard views accepted by the dominant society.
Wayne Ross action to lead to the reconstruction of society e. It is within the context of the tensions between the relative emphasis on transmission of the cultural heritage of the dominant society or the development of critical thought that the social studies curriculum has had a mixed history—predominately conservative in its purposes, but also at times incorporating progressive and even radical purposes. Stan- ley and Nelson organize the variations in social studies curriculum and instruction into three broad and not necessarily opposing categories: subject-centered social studies, civics-centered social studies, and issues- centered social studies.
Subject-centered approaches argue that the social studies curriculum derives its content and purposes from disciplines taught in higher educa- tion. Some advocates would limit social studies curriculum to the study of traditional history and geography while others would also include the tra- ditional social sciences e. The glue holding these various curricular views together is that each seeks to derive an organizing framework for the so- cial studies curriculum based upon disciplinary knowledge from higher education.
Some subject-centered advocates argue for cultural transmis- sion, without multiculturalism e. For both groups subject matter knowl- edge is paramount. Civics-centered social studies is concerned with individual and social attitudes and behaviors more than with subject matter knowledge. As within the subject-centered approach, there are a wide spectrum of views from in- culcating cultural traditions to promoting social action. Views differ on the relative emphasis that should be given to uncritical loyalty, socially approved behaviors, and to social criticism and improvement, but they share the view that social studies is more than subject matter study and must be tied to civic competence e.
Issues-centered approaches propose that social studies is the exami- nation of specific issues. Social as well as personal problems and contro- versies are the primary content of the curriculum. The views in this category range from personal development to social problems as the pur- pose of the social studies curriculum. Some advocates argue that social criticism or activism is the main reason for studying issues e. The three approaches to social studies described by Stanley and Nel- son are not necessarily separate or opposing. Knowledge from the disci- plines is used in each; none disagrees that one purpose of the social studies is citizenship education; and each accepts social studies as a valuable con- struct.
Who Controls the Social Studies Curriculum? Any response to this question hinges on a conception of curriculum. Indeed, even the curriculum commissions of the late nineteenth century recognized the crucial role of social studies teachers in achieving curricular goals. The formal curriculum is the explicit or official curriculum, embodied in published courses or study, state frameworks, textbooks, tests, and cur- riculum standards efforts e. Wayne Ross harbored a tension between approaches that rely on centralized efforts leading to a standard curriculum and grassroots democratic efforts that provide greater involvement for teachers, parents, students, and other local curriculum leaders in determining what is worthwhile to know and experience.
Curriculum centralization has resulted from three major in- fluences: legal decisions; policy efforts by governments, professional asso- ciations, and foundations; and published materials. Examples of the latter two influences will be sketched below. Educational reform efforts in s attempted to define the nature of the school curriculum and featured efforts by both intellec- tual traditionalists e.
Harris and Charles Eliot and developmen- talists e. The social studies curriculum has been heavily influenced by policies of curriculum centralization. The current pattern of topics and courses for secondary social studies is largely the result of recommen- dations of the Committee see Marker, chapter 4 in this volume. Despite the changing demographics of school attendance the pat- tern of course offerings have remained relatively unchanged: K. Self, school, community, home 1. Families 2. Neighborhoods 3. Communities 4. State history, geographic regions 5. United States history 6. World cultures, Western hemisphere 7. World geography or world history 8. United States history 9. World history United States history. American government Efforts to centralize the curriculum through government mandates also have a long history.
Smith-Hughes fostered the transformation of the American high school from an elite institution into one for the masses by mandating that the states specify training needs, program prescriptions, standards and means for monitoring progress. The dual system of education created by Smith-Hughes was reconceptualized in with the passage of the Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act, which provided incen- tives for the development of work education programs that integrate aca- demic and vocational studies.
This is an example of how local grassroots initiatives of people who know best the needs and characteristics of economically distressed communities can be effectively supported Wirth, Regents Examinations in New York State are one of the oldest examples of this approach. These curriculum frameworks are intended to influence textbook pub- lishers and establish standards by which students, teachers, and schools will be assessed.
Wayne Ross I have just hinted at the large-scale centralizing influence of educa- tion policies on curriculum. Resistance to curriculum centralization has always existed Ross, , c. There is a strong tradition of local school control in the U. Dewey argued that acquaintance with centralized knowledge must derive from situational concerns; that is, disciplinary knowledge must be attained by the inquiring student in ways that have meaning for her or him. William H. In the project method, students and teachers took on a greater role in determining the curriculum because they were deemed in the best position to understand the personal and contextual foundations from which a meaningful and relevant curriculum could be constructed.
Projects were pursued in small groups or as whole class experiences. Knowledge from the disciplines would be brought to bear on the pro- ject when it was perceived as relevant. The essence of the project re- quired that teachers and students develop the idea together. If students were fascinated by zoos, for instance all subjects traditional and mod- ern could be related to a deepened understanding of zoos. Schubert, , p. For more than seventy years teachers have relied on textbooks as a pri- mary instructional tool.
In , Bagley found that American students spent a significant portion of their school day in formal mastery of text materials Bagley, cited in McCutcheon, The textbook industry is highly competitive and the industry is dominated by a small number of large corporations; as a result, textbook companies modify their products to qualify for adoption in one of these states.
James W. Loewen illustrates this at length in his analysis of U. For example, in a discussion of how history textbooks make white racism invisible, Loewen notes: Although textbook authors no longer sugarcoat how slavery affected African Americans, they minimize white complicity in it. They present slavery virtually as uncaused, a tragedy, rather than a wrong perpetrated by some people on others. However, in the way the textbooks structure their discussion, most of them inadvertently still take a white supremacist viewpoint. The archetype of African Americans as dependent on others begins. In reality, white violence, not black ignorance, was the key prob- lem during Reconstruction.
Loewen, , p. That year the National Defense Education Act helped to import disciplinary specialists to design curriculum packages for schools. In the social studies, these cur- riculum innovations were collectively called the New Social Studies. Although social studies specialists helped in the development of New Social Studies materials, the curricular focus was on the academic disciplines. Wayne Ross experts in academic disciplines, viewed teachers as implementers not active partners in the creation of classroom curriculum.
While the development and dissemination of the curriculum pro- jects in the s were well funded, they failed to make a major impact on classroom practices. In contrast, proponents of grassroots democracy in curriculum offered the expla- nation that the failure was due to the blatant disregard of teachers and students in curriculum decision making.
This is especially ironic inas- much as those who promoted inquiry methods with the young ne- glected to allow inquiry by teachers and students about matters most fundamental to their growing lives, that is, inquiry about that which is most worthwhile to know and experience. Curriculum Standards It is clear that government-driven curriculum centralization efforts i. The standards movement is a massive effort at curriculum centralization. Virtually all of the subject- matter-based professional education groups have undertaken the creation of curriculum standards. If we fail to satisfy your expectations, you can always request a refund and get your money back. What happens on our website stays on our website. We provide you with a sample paper on the topic you need, and this kind of academic assistance is perfectly legitimate.
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Freedom Schools were temporary, alternative, and free schools for African Americans mostly in the South. They were originally part of a nationwide effort during the Civil Rights Movement to organize African Americans to achieve social, political and economic equality in the United States. The most prominent example of Freedom Schools was in Mississippi during the summer of Despite the Supreme Court's ruling of in the Brown v. Board of Education case striking down segregated school systems , in the mids Mississippi still maintained separate and unequal white and "colored" school systems. Even the curriculum was different for white and black. As a typical example, the white school board of Bolivar County mandated that "Neither foreign languages nor civics shall be taught in Negro schools.
Nor shall American history from to be taught. In late , Charles Cobb ,  a Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC activist, proposed the organization sponsor a network of Freedom Schools, inspired by examples of the concept used previously in other cities. In the summer of , the county board of education in Prince Edward County, Virginia had closed the public schools rather than integrate them after having been sued in a case following Brown vs. Board of Education , and so Freedom Schools emerged in their stead. The Mississippi Freedom Schools were developed as part of the Freedom Summer civil rights project , a massive effort that focused on voter registration drives and educating Mississippi students for social change.
The project was essentially a statewide voter registration campaign, and the framers called for one thousand volunteers to assist in the undertaking. Activists made plans to conduct a parallel Democratic primary election , because the systematic exclusion of black voters resulted in all-white delegations to presidential primaries. These efforts culminated in the creation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. In December , during planning for the upcoming Freedom Summer project, Charles Cobb proposed a network of "Freedom Schools" that would foster political participation among Mississippi elementary and high school students, in addition to offering academic courses and discussions.
Activists organizing the Freedom Summer project accepted Cobb's proposal and in March organized a curriculum planning conference in New York under the sponsorship of the National Council of Churches. Over the course of Freedom Summer, more than 40 Freedom Schools were set up in black communities throughout Mississippi. The purpose was to try to end political displacement of African Americans by encouraging students to become active citizens and socially involved within the community.
Over 3, African American students attended these schools in the summer of Students ranged in age from small children to the very elderly with the average approximately 15 years old. Teachers were volunteers, most of whom were college students themselves. The Freedom Schools were conceptualized with both political and educational objectives. Freedom School teachers would educate elementary and high school students to become social change agents that would participate in the ongoing Civil Rights Movement, most often in voter registration efforts. The curriculum adopted was divided into seven core areas that analyzed the social, political, and economic context of precarious race relations and the Civil Rights Movement.
Leadership development was encouraged, in addition to more traditional academic skills. The education at Freedom Schools was student-centered and culturally relevant. Curriculum and instruction was based on the needs of the students, discussion among students and teachers rather than lecturing was encouraged, and curriculum planners encouraged teachers to base instruction on the experiences of their students. Curriculum development revolved around The Curriculum Conference , which consisted of teachers and directors discussing the type of education that would be taught at the freedom schools.
The teachers were to write an outline for their curriculum planning. They were told to keep in mind what life was like in Mississippi and the short amount of time that they had to teach the material. The curriculum had to be teacher-friendly and immediately useful to the students, while being based on questions and activities. The primary focus was questions and discussion rather than memorization of facts and dates. Instructions to teachers included:. Since the curriculum conference brought together citizens of different backgrounds and origins, the final curriculum outline incorporated material from different origins and consisted of three different sections.
The purpose of these sections was to teach students social change within the school; regional history; black history; how to answer open-ended questions; and the development of academic skills. The Academic Curriculum consisted of reading, writing, and verbal activities that were based on the student's own experiences. The Citizenship Curriculum was to encourage the students to ask questions about the society. The Recreational Curriculum required the student to be physically active. In most of the schools, the Citizenship Curriculum focused on two sets of inter-related questions for class discussion:.
Freedom Schools opened during the first week of July , after approximately Freedom School volunteer teachers attended one-week training sessions at Western College for Women in Oxford, Ohio. The original plans had anticipated 25 Freedom Schools and 1, students; by the end of the summer, 41 schools had been opened to over 2, students. Freedom Schools were established with the help and commitment of local communities, who provided various buildings for schools and housing for the volunteer teachers. While some of the schools were held in parks, kitchens, residential homes, and under trees, most classes were held in churches or church basements.